Understanding the Difference: Marketing, Public Relations, and Advertising

When mentioning I work in public relations, I am often met with a follow up question along the lines of “So, what exactly does that mean? People pay you to get them in the news?” My answer is, of course, no.

I say of course, but the truth is, it’s not so simple or obvious to people who don’t work in a marketing field. Many people don’t understand the difference between public relations and advertising, and still more don’t quite realize how broad a term marketing is and the various professional fields it represents.

Hopefully, the following information will help clear up the confusion.   

What is Marketing

Marketing is the general term and process used to introduce your product, service or company to your target audience, while ensuring that your existing customers remain interested.

The discipline is made up of various fields, which include advertising and public relations, as well as research, product design, customer service and support, company and product reviews and so much more.

Think of marketing as a jigsaw puzzle. There are many different pieces, each fitting into a specific spot. On their own, the pieces are just that – a piece. But when it’s put together with the next piece, it begins to show parts of the bigger picture and once all the pieces are in their place, you have a complete picture and a final product.

When your company is creating a marketing campaign, you need to consider all aspects and understand how they will all work independently as well as interdependently as part of the larger campaign. If you conduct months of market research and pay for advertising and public relations but design a label that doesn’t match the image of the product or convey the message you’re trying to send, your entire campaign could be a bust.

To break it down even further, marketing is made up of the four P’s: product, price, place and promotion.

Product

In this case, product refers to either a tangible good or an intangible service that your company is offering to consumers. Companies need to have a solidified idea of what their product is or what they are offering before bringing it to market, and they need to know what makes their product or service unique.

Why should customers buy your goods or use your service?

Price

Price refers to the actual cost of the product that you are selling, and correlates with the perceived value of that product. If you are selling your product for too much, or assess the value too low, consumers will not buy it. In addition, be mindful of how competitors are pricing similar products, as that should indicate how to price yours competitively.

Keep in mind that price also determines profit margin, so be sure to factor it into your supply needs to keep up with demand.

Promotion

This is where advertising and public relations come into play. Promotion is when a company conveys its messaging to consumers through various platforms. In today’s digital world, this also includes social media platforms. Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter make up the “holy trinity” of social media, while LinkedIn serves an important purpose for corporate businesses selling a service.

When considering which form of promotion you would like to use, make sure to do your research and determine which will work best. Once you’ve determined how you want to promote your product, research competing companies in the space so you can hire the best advertising or the best PR firm to do the job.

Place

Place literally refers to the place where the product is sold. It should be accessible to the end users and somewhere that they shop. Today, the place usually includes some sort of e-commerce platform, but it can also include a supermarket, brick-and-mortar location or even pop-up stands.

However you decide to market your product, one thing is certain: It is crucial that your company’s marketing team fine tunes all aspects of the campaign to ensure that the product you are selling to your customers is exactly as you intended it to be.

What is Public Relations

If marketing is the sum of all pieces when assembled, then what exactly is PR and how do you create a successful PR campaign? And how is it different from advertising?

Despite being used by many businesses around the world, public relations is still one of the least understood marketing tools. To break it down at its most basic level, the best way to explain what public relations is and how it differs from advertising is with this old saying, “Advertising is what you pay for; publicity is what you pray for.”

Think of a PR professional as a storyteller, as someone telling your brand, product or organization's story through unpaid or earned media, to your target audience. Public relations media can come through various mediums, including online or print news sources, broadcast, or even speaking engagements and social media platforms.

The goal of PR is inform the public, your public, of something happening within your company, whether it’s a new product launch, a major hire or a new partnership, to name a few. PR is also an effective tool for establishing credibility for yourself and your company because of the people choosing to tell your story.  

Reporters, editors and producers have their own credibility and have built reputations with consumers. Those narrators have the power to influence consumer behavior just based on the stories they choose to tell. They are not forced to write or broadcast a story about your company or product, so if and when they do, it is because they believe in the story you’re telling or the product you’re selling, and want to share that with their audience.

An effective public relations campaign also helps keep your brand visible. Whether through expert commentary, speaking opportunities or full-feature pieces on your brand, remaining in the news is important for your business. A good campaign will incorporate both elements -- expert commentary on topics relevant to you and your business and profiles.

In addition to all the positive information that public relations helps spread, public relations can also be incredibly important when it comes to crisis management.

A crisis can come up at any time in your business. Whether there is a production line issue, an employee walkout or strike, faulty products or recall issues to name a few, it’s best to have a trustworthy partner or team in place that is prepared to help mitigate the fallout and impact to your brand.

Whatever your need, a public relations team works to earn your time in the spotlight, which brings us to the topic of advertising...

What is Advertising

Whereas public relations is all about unpaid and earned media, advertising is the exact opposite. It’s all about paid media with the intention of promoting your brand, product or service. Advertising generally reaches a very wide audience, and is not always well-targeted.

There are many goals of advertisements, which include creating a sense of need with consumers -- to make consumers feel as if they need to buy your product or service -- introducing them to a new product or service, or even just generally creating brand awareness. However, where PR helps establish credibility among consumers, ads do not. The majority of the time, consumers are aware that they are reading an ad and they know that the content is paid for and therefore written by the company.  

One of the best aspects about advertising is that you -- the brand -- control the messaging. No one can write something you don’t want and nothing will be left out (unless you forget to write it). You can also encourage consumers to act through the ad, by including statements such as “buy now” or “book now” or “call now for a free quote.” These statements help create a sense of urgency and can help push consumers to buy your product or use your company sooner rather than later. You also control the creative, or the design, aspect of the ad. As the advertiser, you can also determine how many times you want your ad shown, as long as it fits into your budget.

No matter how you choose to promote your business, product or service, it is important to understand the difference between marketing, public relations and advertising. You don’t want to approach an advertising agency and expect a public relations proposal from them, nor would you want to approach a PR firm and ask for an advertising proposal. Generally, firms specialize in one of these areas - public relations or advertising - and do not cross over into the other. Understanding your needs as a business will help guide your decision of where to spend your marketing budget.


By Samara Schaum

Broadway Stages Receives Award Commending Community Involvement


We are so proud of our NYC based public relations and communications client Broadway Stages for receiving an award on Monday, August 6th from Patrol Borough Brooklyn North for being an outstanding Community Partner! The awards were given at an event for dedicated police officers who go above and beyond for the community. Although they are not police officers, premiere film and television production company Broadway Stages was awarded at this event for extraordinary commitment to the community and their love of giving back.

 

Broadway Stages is truly a company worthy of this honor. In 2017, they gave a donation for Christmas, and sponsored a haunted house on Halloween. This year, they stepped up for a last minute request for a July 4th event by finding and sponsoring a honeywagon for a Brooklyn North Patrol event when the honeywagon they had planned for and expected fell through.

 

This level of commitment and care deems Broadway Stages more than deserving of the Community Partner award, thanking Broadway Stages for always being there.

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National Night Out: A community building campaign to promote safety in local neighborhoods

Tuesday August 7 was National Night Out, an annual community-building campaign that promotes police-community partnerships and neighborhood camaraderie to make our neighborhoods safer, more caring places to live.

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Events were held at more than 70 locations around New York City, including in Greenpoint, Brooklyn where local business, Broadway Stages, our public relations client sponsored the evening’s activities.

The Greenpoint National Night Out event was in support of the local 94th Precinct. Broadway Stages brought in a carnival game (a water-skill shot), cotton candy machine, spin art, balloon animals, face painting, bouncy castle, rock climbing wall, an ice cream truck and BBQ food for over 700 people. CEO Gina Argento went to work, serving attendees hotdogs and burgers as they lined up for food. Other Broadway Stages employees were on hand to assist with the evening’s activities.

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Captain William E. Glynn, commanding officer of the 94th Precinct took part in his first National Night Out with his new precinct, handing out awards and citations to a number of attendees and local businesses for outstanding work within the community, including Broadway Stages. Also in attendance were Assemblyman Joseph R. Lentol and District Attorney Eric Gonzalez.

Overall, the night was a huge success with hundreds of local Greenpoint residents coming out to enjoy the food, activities and company of their local NYPD precinct. Despite the heavy rain towards the end of the evening, this was another successful year at the 94th Precinct’s National Night Out sponsored by Broadway Stages.

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Marketing, Advertising, and Public Relations: What’s the Difference?

Marketing, advertising, and public relations.  If you’re in any of these fields, you have most likely been exposed to all of these categories and understand the complex ins and outs.  Anyone not in these industries, though, may struggle to comprehend what exactly people in these fields do. Worse yet, they may even use these terms interchangeably.  These fields are actually quite different though, with unique responsibilities and goals embedded in each. Here is a brief breakdown of the different fields:

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Broadway Stages’ Week of Giving Continues!

Continuing to spread holiday cheer, Broadway Stages’ CEO Gina Argento sponsored roughly 250 meals yesterday, December 15, 2017, through North Brooklyn Angels. North Brooklyn Angels is a mobile food organization that gives away free food. The event began at 12:15 PM, just outside the Cooper Park NYCHA Complex.

They handed out meals of fish fillets and veggies through their one-of-a-kind bright blue truck that delivers 200+ meals a day, supplying lunch Monday-Friday to anyone who shows up. They deliver food from different locations each day, with five locations total around North Brooklyn, including the parking lot of a Broadway Stages soundstage. Each day, they stay until there’s no food left, no matter how cold it might be outside.

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North Brooklyn Angels is a new volunteer-based organization that only launched this past May. While they started by handing out lunches three days a week, they have since been able to increase to five days a week because of generous donations from the local community this past July 4th; since they started, they’ve given out about 20,000 meals. North Brooklyn Angels is a huge success, and is hoping to be serving two meals a day by next summer. Another exciting development is that while right now they pick up food from Saint John’s Baptist Church in North Brooklyn, they are hoping to soon begin cooking their own meals in a kitchen opening on January 3rd.

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Broadway Stages’ holiday spirit will continue throughout the week, with plenty of events to look forward to!

By: Ilana Weinberger

Broadway Stages’ Week of Giving

The holiday giving spirit is running strong this year in New York City.

On Tuesday, December 12, 2017, Broadway Stages’ Bushwick Stages gave away over 300 toys and coats in its annual drive to support the local children of the neighborhood who came out. This event was started years ago, and is a huge success every year. The giveaway began at 9:30 AM at their Bushwick Stages. Hundreds of children showed up to pick up their new toys and coats. The smiles on their faces reflected the season’s holiday cheer.

Kids and parents alike had fun taking pictures with Rudolph. Broadway Stages is hyper-local and passionate about helping out in various ways in places where they have stages.

Broadway Stages’charitable giving will continue throughout the week. Holidays are the perfect opportunity to give back, since ‘tis the season of giving. Happy holidays, and a happy New Year.
 

Stay tuned to hear about the rest of the events that Broadway Stages has coming this week!

By: Ilana Weinberger

A Future for Facebook?

At a lunch with friends the other week, the discussion turned to everyone’s most addictive pastime--social media.  And no discussion of social media can go by without some mention of Facebook.  Everyone discussed how old they were when they created an account, and how often they post.  It turns out, in a sample size of about ten people in their twenties, most created a Facebook account in eighth or ninth grade, and most don’t post very often at all.  Most had an Instagram, but don’t post there that often either.

 

But when you compare these results to a slightly younger cohort, things get interesting.  My younger sister is 19, and has a very different relationship with Facebook.  To her, Facebook seems like a vestige of the past.  She uses Facebook to keep tabs on friends she already has and maintains her page by updating her profile and cover photos.  She writes birthday notes on friends’ walls, but that’s about it in the way of Facebook content creation.  Rather, she posts often on Instagram.  This trend is not encouraging for the once unparalleled social media giant.  How is it that my sister who is only a few years younger than me experiences Facebook in such a different way?  How and when did Instagram begin taking over the market?  Is Facebook doomed to MySpace status?

The timeline is like this: MySpace was created in 2003, Facebook was created in 2004 and ultimately completely wiped out MySpace, and Instagram was only created a few years ago, in 2010, but already has 700 million users.  Facebook’s most common age demographic is ages 25 to 34, at 29.7% users, and Instagram’s most common age demographic is teenagers ages 13 to 17, with 23% of girls and 17% of boys on the app.  Right now, kids in this age range, 13-17, are primarily posting on Instagram, and perhaps streaming their photos to Facebook as an afterthought.  I’m always intrigued when I see these photos on Facebook that are streamed from Instagram.  I can’t imagine this is ideal for Facebook--it doesn’t seem like a sustainable way to maintain a website’s content.

It’s hard to say where Facebook will be in a few years.  But judging from MySpace/Facebook, and Facebook and Instagram’s primary age demographics, it seems to me like Instagram is taking the upper hand.  Better start thinking of clever captions.

By: Ilana Weinberger

How to Stand Out in Food Delivery Service Ads

It seems like nobody cooks anymore.  There are ads for food delivery services left and right; you almost can’t leave your apartment without seeing one.  So how do you stand out in such a vast market?  Here’s a look into five different food delivery services and the similar and different strategies they use:

1) Seamless
With about 234,000 orders placed per day, Seamless is currently top of the market in food delivery services.  The uniquely bright colors and clever one-liners draw attention, and customers.

2) GrubHub

GrubHub’s ads use a more pastel color palette than Seamless, and depict meticulously arranged food.  Their ads focus on the simplicity of the process of ordering food online, instead of using Seamless’ bandwagon technique (i.e., implying that all New Yorkers use Seamless.)

3) Uber Eats

Uber Eats’ ad campaign idea was uniquely simple--just use the layout of the app to depict the route that your potential deliverer could use to bring you food.  The campaign utilizes neutral colors and an unobtrusive font.  The result is straightforward and to the point.  

4) Caviar

Caviar’s campaign could use some angling.  Right now, their ads say things like, “Love great food?  Try Caviar!”  A little too simple.  Perhaps Caviar could take a lesson in angling from Seamless.

5) Eat 24:

Okay, let’s talk about Eat 24’s ad campaign for a second.  I’m shocked that I’ve only come across the ads recently.  The ads that they launched are shockingly sexual, all contributing to the idea that they are “the food delivery service for sexy geniuses.”  This is an interesting approach to food marketing, though the more traditional techniques utilized by Seamless and BGrubHub seem to be more effective, judging by daily users.

It’s tough to think of unique approaches in such a crowded market, and interesting to consider how the competition is handling the challenge.    

By: Ilana Weinberger

5 Ways to a Wonderful Website

It is becoming increasingly important to keep a good digital presence in today's society. Here are some ways to make sure your website stands out from the crowd. 

1) Creative Colors

Once you choose the color scheme that fits best for your website, make sure to create a color "hierarchy" that allows the online audience to see and understand what texts should stand out more than others. 

 

2) Mobility on Mobile

When creating the layout, design, and even logo, make sure to think about how it will look on a mobile device or smartphone. Consumers are increasingly searching companies and websites on their phones, it is important to make sure your impression is good there. 

3) Wonderful White Space

While you might have a lot you want to tell your customers, make sure to keep white space when designing your website. Think of it as breaths of fresh air, that allow customers to focus on the important content you have decided to share. The less white space you have, the less overall reading comprehension there is (Weinschenck, 2014).

4) Utilize Directional Cues

Directional cues add designs, and a subtle way to get your audience to focus on what is important on your website. These images can attract your online visitors and then lead them to what you want them to read! 

5) Create a Community

Keep the customers coming back and engaging by cultivating an online community with your website. This can be done in numerous ways, by creating links to social media accounts that they can follow, having an online discussion forum, or creating ablog! Customers feel valued when they know you want to hear from them. 

Case Studies of New York-Centric Ads

By the time you arrive at work in the morning, you have already been bombarded with ads.  Simply by walking to and out of the subway, and by being on the subway, you have already seen hundreds of images, logos, and slogans.  You are exposed to more than you realize; just try counting the ads on your commute tomorrow.  I take the 4/5/6 to get to work in the morning, and love paying attention to my morning subway’s ads.  Two of my favorite ad campaigns at the moment include and Seamless’ “How New York Eats” campaign and StreetEasy’s “Find Your Place” campaign.  This had me thinking about what works about these campaigns.  I realized that they actually have a lot in common—they both target New Yorkers in a way that pokes fun at their ridiculousness.

As a Jersey girl, I immediately noticed the immense differences between New Jersey and New York when I moved here about four years ago.  New Jersians have a reputation of being small-town and nice.  New Yorkers are known for being pretty much the opposite of that.  They have a reputation of being loud and audacious.  These differences made moving a state away feel like moving a world away.  I’ve learned a lot in this crazy city, mostly that you should be confident and try to expect the unexpected.  I’ve learned that New Yorkers are filled with contradictions—they want to go to brunch and yoga but they don’t want to spend money, they want to sleep but they also want to bragplain to their friends about how little they sleep.

        Seamless and StreetEasy understood just how crazy New Yorkers can be when they released their campaigns.  Seamless’ “How New York Eats” campaign includes tongue-in-cheek one-liners that harness the insanity that is New York dining.  One of my favorites goes, “Nothing ruins a good meal like other New Yorkers.”  The ad includes a graphic of the New York skyline.  The ads’ color schemes are bold, using background colors such as red, yellow, and blue.  All of the graphics are cartoonish, with fonts of all kinds.  The goal is to be fun enough to capture the attention of their target audience, New Yorkers, in an age where information is constantly thrown in consumers’ faces.

 

        StreetEasy also created their campaign around the idea of poking fun at New Yorkers in their “Find Your Place” campaign.  My favorite ad from this campaign reads, “No doorman for me.  I have enough people in my life judging me.”  This is just funny, and also points to the contradictory nature of New Yorkers—they want a doorman, but they also don’t want more people in their lives to judge them.  The ads in this campaign are subtler than Seamless’ ads; they are all different shades of blue, with words all in the same font, and with more subdued graphics.  The ads are unique in their format.  For example, in the doorman ad, the word “doorman” has a check mark next to it, as though you are on StreetEasy’s website and have the option of checking or exing the doorman box.


        Basically, New Yorkers are crazy, and ad creators are checking in to this truism.  I appreciate a good ad, and I’ve learned to love New York, so the combination that is utilized in Seamless and StreetEasy’s clever ads makes me smile.  What a funny city.  I heart NY.

By Ilana Weinberger

The Psychology behind Marketing: How to Influence Consumers and Boost your Social Media Popularity

Human behavior has long been studied and researched. Here are 5 Psychological phenomenons that explain how to influence consumer behavior. 

 

1. Social Proof

Social Proof, also known as the as informational social influence is the effect that describes when people will copy the actions of others in order to follow the "correct" behavior for a given situation. This can easily be translated into customer reviews, when a consumer sees other happy purchasers rating the product 5 starts, they too, will want to buy the good product. 

 

2. Color

Multiple studies have been done to see the influence of color on the decision making behavior of consumers. The Von Restorff effect, also known as the isolation effect, is a phenomenon that predicts that whatever stands out is more likely to be remembered. Over 50% of a consumers buying decision is made on color alone. Make sure that your company logo is unique and has a good color scheme!

 

3. Reciprocity

A study done by Dr. Robert Caldini in 2002 showed that waiters' tips would increase by 3% if customers received an after dinner mint, and by 20% if they have the customers two mints! When delivering the second mind, the waiter would look at the patron and tell them it was specifically for them. 

 

By giving the customers something more personalized, from a note pad with their name to an email, they will feel happy and want to return the sentiment, greatly benefiting your company.

 

 

4. Decoy Effect

The Decoy Effect is a phenomenon where consumers will change their preference between two options when a third, skewed option is dominated. For example, a magazine description describing these three options were given to a consumer:

  • Online subscription: $59
  • Print subscription: $125
  • Online and print subscription: $125

When presented with these options, the third one was chosen majority of the time. The print subscription was placed there as a decoy, to influence consumers to choose the bundle for the supposedly better deal. 

 

5. Scarcity

In social sciences, scarcity can be used to measure consumers behavior. Consumers tend to place a higher value on products that scant versus those that are in high supply. When at a cafe, people tend to choose the cookie that has two left compared to the full container. Plane tickets or clothing will go by faster when you see "Only three left!" 

Best PR Campaigns of 2016

It is easy to say that most people are ready to see 2016 go. It was filled of many ups and downs, and just bizarre moments. Here are some of the top PR campaigns of this past year:

1. Finger Licking Good! Literally. 

In early May, KFC launched their exclusive line of edible nail polish. Yes, nail polish. Not chicken! The chicken flavored nail polish launched in Hong Kong in order to increase excitement about the brand. The stunt gained worldwide attention, and definitely the attention of its customer base.

2. Rich, in Sugar!

In early 2016, Skittles launched a PR campaign that created a "Skittles Holiday Pawn Shop". People in Toronto, CA were encouraged to come into the shop and bargain their unwanted holiday gifts in exchange for skittles. They walked away with sweet currency, and all the items were donated to charity. A win win! 

3. "Like my Addiction"

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It is safe to say that social media is a great way to target a younger audience. That is exactly what the French ad company BETC to help Addict Aide. "Louise.delage" was an Instagram account created, that gained over 50,000 likes on her photos and videos within two months. It was later revealed that upon closer inspection, each photo had this girl drinking alcohol. A creative and impactful way to raise the awareness of addiction. 

4.Simple Selfie

Paramount launched this simple yet effective campaign to increase the publicity of the release of Zoolander 2. The public was encouraged to share post their own version of the famous "Blue Steel Pose". The #BlueSteelSelfie was a great way to create buzz. 

5. Touchable Ink

In an extremely innovative step, Samsung partnered with the Thailand Association of the Blind and a chemistry professor to create one of the first accessible and cheap braille ink. This "Touchable Ink" could be placed into any printer cartridge, heated up with any household device, and the braille would appear! It was a huge step, because braille printers cost thousands of dollars which make it inaccessible to a wide population. While not promoting their products, this campaign helped Samsung gain worldwide support and attention. 

Native Advertising

Native Advertising

In today’s digital landscape, how consumers learn about brands is rapidly changing. Banner and side bar ads on websites don’t garner the attention they used to, and more and more people are using ad blockers to delete them all together. Native advertising has quickly risen as the solution to this problem and is proving to have a better success rate than traditional online ads.

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Snapchat News

Snapchat News

As physical newspapers become something of the past, social apps slowly begin to step in. Millennials are all digital. We do everything entirely from our phones from shopping, to reading a novel and of course finding out the latest news. In the past, twitter has been know as the more traditional digital news site and the go to for reading about trendy topics and other news. However, as social apps continue to evolve so do ways on how millennials read and access the news.

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Biggest Political Campaign Blunders of All Time

Biggest Political Campaign Blunders of All Time

It’s hard to get through a political campaign and election without a hiccup here and there. As we see Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump go back to back this season, let’s revisit some of the most famous campaign blunders of all time. 

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PokéPR

Admit it, did you see a single ad for Pokémon GO before it was released? Odds are you probably found out about it from a friend who was playing it. While Niantic’s Pokémon GO may have started as an April Fool’s Joke, on July 6th 2016, millions of Americans plugged in to finally experience the popular franchise in the real world (more or less). Recode.net estiamtes the total number of players in the US to be about 9.5 million daily. Additionally the app has already surpassed data usage of other popular apps such as Tinder and Twitter. But, the question is, how can an app with little to no marketing or pr budget get, let alone keep the number one spot for so long? Well there are a few reasons...

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Gold Medals and Zika Virus: The Ins and Outs of Olympics Media

Gold Medals and Zika Virus: The Ins and Outs of Olympics Media

The Olympics are truly a global event. Over 207 countries participated in the Parade of Nations, during the opening ceremony in Rio on August 5th. The International Olympic Committee even decided to compose a team of refugees to bring to light the worldwide refugee crisis. With that being said, coverage of the Olympics is no easy task. There are multiple aspects to the public relations behind the Olympics that the public are quick to pick up and critique.

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Party Progress: The Recent Changes in the US Political Realm

America’s major political parties recently held highly watched, media-friendly conventions; all the while, political history was changing and electoral coalitions were realigning. In Cleveland, the Republicans pointedly critiqued the current administration with scarcely hidden motifs of anxiety and fear. Conversely, the Democrats nostalgically sought to show the appeals of continuity and present a new way forward. In their own ways, both parties continued down their centuries-long trajectory while simultaneously radically diverging from their recent forms.

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Cultural Salvage: My Afternoon at the Diarna Situation Room

Cultural Salvage: My Afternoon at the Diarna Situation Room

No culture ever vanishes completely… vestiges can be found if one looks hard enough. Recently, however, the Islamic State and a plethora of other terrorist organizations in the Middle East have been on a rampage of destroying culture they deem unfit for or contrary to their mission. I was in the hospital last year when ISIS dynamited the ancient temple complex at Palmyra. Needless so say, it did not help to expedite my recovery.

A culture vastly overlooked by many historians and academics alike is the rich Jewish culture that used to flourish throughout cities in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Balkans. Only seventy years ago, there were still thriving Jewish communities in cities across the Muslim world. Some were very shaken, like in Baghdad, some on the precipice of collapse, like Damascus, and some would soon be completely abandoned, like in Alexandria. Instead of abandonment, there's a new problem facing Jewish heritage sites in the Middle East: the merciless destruction of Jewish culture by terrorist organizations.

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